Senin, 07 Maret 2011

Kekayaam Budaya Sumba

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Pulau Sumba didiami oleh suku Sumba dan terbagi atas dua kabupaten, Sumba Barat dan Sumba Timur. Masyarakat Sumba cukup mampu mempertahankan kebudayaan aslinya ditengah-tengah arus pengaruh asing yang telah singgah di kepulauan Nusa Tenggara Timur sejak dahulu kala. Kepercayaan khas daerah Marapu, setengah leluhur, setengah dewa, masih amat hidup ditengah-tengah masyarakat Sumba ash. Marapu menjadi falsafah dasar bagi berbagai ungkapan budaya Sumba mulai dari upacara-upacara adat, rumahrumah ibadat (umaratu) rumah-rumah adat dan tata cara rancang bangunnya, ragam-ragam hias ukiran-ukiran dan tekstil sampai dengan pembuatan perangkat busana seperti kain-kain hinggi dan lau serta perlengkapan perhiasan dan senjata.

Di Sumba Timur strata sosial antara kaum bangsawan (maramba), pemuka agama (kabisu) dan rakyat jelata (ata) masih berlaku, walaupun tidak setajam dimasa lalu dan jelas juga tidak pula tampak lagi secara nyata pada tata rias dan busananya. Dewasa ini perbedaan pada busana lebih ditunjukkan oleh tingkat kepentingan peristiwa seperti pada pesta-pesta adat, upacara-upacara perkawinan dan kematian dimana komponen-komponen busana yang dipakai adalah buatan baru. Sedangkan busana lama atau usang biasanya dipakai di rumah atau untuk bekerja sehari-hari.

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Bagian terpenting dari perangkat pakaian adat Sumba terletak pada penutup badan berupa lembar-lembar besar kain hinggi untuk pria dan lau untuk wanita. Dari kain-kain hinggi dan lau tersebut, yang terbuat dalam teknik tenun ikat dan pahikung serta aplikasi muti dan hada terungkap berbagai perlambangan dalam konteks sosial, ekonomi serta religi suku sumba.


Busana pria

Sebagaimana telah disebutkan busana masyarakat Sumba dewasa mi cenderung lebih ditekankan pada tingkat kepentingan serta suasana lingkungan suatu kejadian daripada hirarki status sosial. Namun masih ada perbedaan-perbedaan kecil. Misalnya busana pria bangsawan biasanya terbuat dari kain-kain dan aksesoris yang lebih halus daripada kepunyaan rakyat jelata, tetapi komponen serta tampak keseluruhannya sama. Menilik hal-hal tersebut maka pembahasan busana pria sumba ditujukan pada pakaian tradisional yang dikenakan pada peristiwa besar, upacara, pesta-pesta dan sejenisnya. Karena pada saat-saat seperti itulah ia tampil dalam keadaan terbaiknya. Busana pria Sumba terdiri atas bagianbagian penutup kepala, penutup badan dan sejumlah penunjangnya berupa perhiasan dan senjata tajam.

Sebagai penutup badan digunakan dua lembar hinggi yaitu hinggi kombu dan hinggi kaworu. Hinggi kombu dipakai pada pinggul dan diperkuat letaknya dengan sebuah ikat pinggang kulit yang lebar. Hinggi kaworu atau terkadang juga hinggi raukadama digunakan sebagai pelengkap. Di kepala dililitkan tiara patang, sejenis penutup kepala dengan lilitan dan ikatan tertentu yang menampilkan jambul. Jambul inilah dapat diletakkan di depan, samping kiri atau samping kanan sesuai dengan maksud perlambang yang ingin dikemukakan. Jambul di depan misalnya melambangkan kebijaksanaan dan kemandirian. Hinggi dan tiara terbuat dari tenunan dalam teknik ikat dan pahikung. Khususnya yang terbuat dengan teknik pahikung disebut tiara pahudu.

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Ragam-ragam hias yang terdapat pada hinggi dan tiara terutama berkaitan dengan alam lingkungan mahluk hidup seperti abstraksi manusia (tengkorak), udang, ayam, ular, naga, buaya, kuda, ikan, penyu, cumi-cumi, rusa, burung, kerbau sampai dengan corak-corak yang dipengaruhi oleh kebudayaan asing (Cina dan Belanda) yakni naga, bendera tiga warna, mahkota dan singa. Kesemuanya memiliki arti serta perlambang yang berangkat dari mitologi, alam pikiran serta kepercayaan mendalam terhadap marapu. Warna hinggi juga mencerminkan nilai estetis dan status sosial. Hinggi terbaik adalah hinggi kombu kemudian hinggi kawaru lalu hinggi raukadana dan terakhir adalah hinggi panda paingu.

Selanjutnya busana pria Sumba dilengkapi dengan sebilah kabiala yang disisipkan pada sebelah kiri ikat pinggang. Sedangkan pergelangan tangan kiri dipakai kanatar dan mutisalak. Secara tradisional busana pria tidak menggunakan alas kaki, namun dewasa ini perlengkapan tersebut semakin banyak digunakan khususnya didearah perkotaan. Kabiala adalah lambang kejantanan, muti salak menyatakan kemampuan ekonomi serta tingkat sosial. Demikian pula halnya perhiasan-perhiasan lainnya. Secara menyeluruh hiasan dan penunjang busana ini merupakan simbol kearifan, keperkasaan serta budi baik seseorang.


Busana Adat Wanita
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Pakaian pesta dan upacara wanita Sumba Timur selalu melibatkan pilihan beberapa kain yang diberi nama sesuai dengan teknik pembuatannya seperti lau kaworu, lau pahudu, lau mutikau dan lau pahudu kiku. Kain-kain tersebut dikenakan sebagai sarung setinggi dada (lau pahudu kiku) dengan bagian bahu tertutup taba huku yang sewarna dengan sarung.

Di kepala terikat tiara berwarna polos yang dilengkapi dengan hiduhai atau hai kara. Pada dahi disematkan perhiasan logam (emas atau sepuhan) yaitu maraga, sedangkan di telinga tergantung mamuli perhiasan berupa kalung-kalung keemasan juga digunakan pada sekitar leher, menjurai ke bagian dada.

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Sumba has a unique culture and their social life. Sumbanese are traditionally divided into three level of social life : (Raja/King) – Maramba, Customary Official – Kabihu, and Slaves – Ata. Sumbanese are living from farming, cattle breeding, rice-field farming and trading. Ones owns cattle will contribute to their social status such as if they had more cattle giving them a higher social status. Most Sumbanese are Christian (Catholic and Protestant), however, and part of them are still strongly keep their native and original religion called Marapu. Most cultural objects are related to the Marapu religion such as the shape of traditional houses, ceremonies, or kings’ graves and tombs.

The island of Sumba is well known of its sandlewood, horses, impressive megalithic tombs, typical hand woven textile (“ikat”), and still untouched beautiful beaches. There are two entering point in to Sumba island from anywhere in the Lesser Waingapu & Waikabubak (Tambolaka). These are the people could enter Sumba for either by flight or boat.

Three main geodynamic models for Sumba have been reviewed by Chamalaun et al. (1982) and Wensink (1994) as follows : (i) Sumba was originally a part of the Australian Continent which was detached afterwards when the Wharton basin was formed, drifted northwards and subsequently trapped behind the eastern Java Trench (Audley-Charles, 1975 ; Otofuji et al., 1981), (ii) Sumba was once part of Sundaland which was drifted southwards during the opening of the Flores Basin (Hamilton,1979, Von der Borch et al., 1983 ; Rangin et al., 1990) and (iii) Sumba was either a microcontinent or part of a larger continent within the Tethys, which later was fragmented (Chamalaun and Sunata, 1982).

Three distinct calc-alkaline magmatic episodes have been recorded during Cretaceous – Paleogene, all of them characterized by nearly similar rock assemblages (i.e pyroclastic rocks, basaltic – andesitic lava flows and granodioritic intrusions). They are respectively (i) the Santonian – Campanian episode (86-77 Ma) represented by volcanic and plutonic rock exposures in the Masu Complex from Eastern Sumba, (ii) the Maastrichtian-Thanetian episode (71-56 Ma) represented by the volcanic and plutonic units of Sendikari Bay, Tengairi Bay and the Tanadaro Complex in Central Sumba and finally (iii) the Lutetian – Rupelian episode (42-31 Ma) of which the products are exposed at Lamboya and Jawila in western part of Sumba. No evidence of Neogene magmatic activity has been recorded so far.

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The island of Sumba is well known of its sandlewood, horses, impressive megalithic tombs, typical hand woven textile (“ikat”), and still untouched beautiful beaches. There are two entering point in to Sumba island from anywhere in the Lesser Waingapu & Waikabubak (Tambolaka). These are the people could enter Sumba for either by flight or boat.

Waikabubak
A neat little town in West part of Sumba island, full of old graves carved in motifs of buffalo horns, man heads, horses, nude men or women symbolizing social status or wealth of the people. West Sumba is the regency whose capital is Waikabubak. It can be reached by plane from Kupang via Waingapu and Denpasar via Bima.

In Waikabubak, you can see find the megalithic tombs of Kadung Tana, Watu Karagata, and Bulu Peka Mila. Tarung Village is an important ceremonial center, located on hill top west of Waikabubak.


TRADITIONS

Sumba has a unique culture and social life.
Sumbanese are traditionally divided into three level of social life: Raja/King=Maramba, Customary Official=Kabihu,and Slaves = Ata.
Sumbanese live from farming, cattle breeding, rice-field farming and trading. Owning cattle contributes to their social status such that if they have more cattle this gives them a higher social status. A few muslim and hindu are found here, most Sumbanese are officially Christian (Catholic and Protestant), however a large part of them still strongly keep their native and original religion called Marapu. Most cultural objects are related to the Marapu religion such as traditional houses, megalithic carved tombs, ritual handicraft, patterns of textiles.

Ikat:
The spectacular and very famous ikat of Sumba is made of cotton hand spun, traditionally dyed with local plants (Kombu – Indigo) and minerals.
Thread is spun from July to October, then bound for patterns until December. After the rainy season, they collect indigo plants and kombu tree leaves for dying. In Summer, after harvest, women began to weave and it can take one year for one piece of textile. On some kind of ikat, cowrie shells and colourful beads are intricately apply in keeping with old artistic tradition.
Patterns of ikat combine animals, plants, geometric motifs and ethnographic symbolism.
Ikat textiles are used for exchange at important ceremonies and show one’s social status. At funerals, the most exquisite textiles are placed in the grave for use in the afterworld.

Handicraft:
Aside from ikat you can get others artifacts of primitive art in Sumba: Wood carvings, sculptured stones, lime containers, traditional jewellery (Mamuli,Marengo,Tabelo), basket work, long knifes( Parang), traditional bag(Kalieku), primitive musical instrument, household items and artefact for fishing or hunting.
There are 45 different clans (Suku) in Sumba and each one has their own Marapu and their own invisible spirits.
In a traditional Sumbanese house (Uma), you can find wood or stone carvings which are images of Marapu even human or animal representation.
In such house the are four pillars: one for men, one for Marapu (ancestor ) one for women and the last one for articles of value (spears, long knives, weawings, jewelry) and special plates, special earthen waterjar for Marapu. In some villages, you can still see skull trees dating from the time they were headhunters.

MARAPU:
The essence of Marapu religion is the belief in spirituals forces including God, spirits and ancestors. Dead people can influence the world of the living and the living perform rituals in order to satisfy ancestors and sometimes ask to them for help or agreement .Humans cannot appeal to God the creator so Ancestors are placed on earth mediated through people who get special powers (concentrated in certain places or objects) . Those people are “Rato” (priests) , Dodo and Tahuli who are able to speak the spiritual language (Bahasa adat) of Ancestors. Wula Podu, Topeng, Magowo, Pajura, Pasola, Yawu are some of main Marapu ceremonies (details in Events)


EVENT :
WULA PODU – Holy month for Marapu.
From full moon of October to full moon of November there are many prohibitions; if infringed ancestor spirits will strongly punish the infringer. At the end of Wula podu month, many ceremonies take place:
°Topeng:
In several villages of Lamboya, Patiala, Loli drums are beating all night long and the day after occurs the ceremony. Marapu rituals are performed by a rato, women dance and a kind of sorcerer wearing a mask amuse or frighten the audience.

°Magowo:
A big crowd gather at the delta of a river (Lamboya) for Marapu rituals and collective
traditional fishing.

°Pajura:
ritual boxing for men. It seems like they get up to all that was forbidden during the holy period!
During this period, rato of Sodan village decide of the date for Pasola Lamboya.

PASOLA:
Pasola is the name of a war game tournament played by two groups of Sumbanese men (ones performing for coastal villages, others for inland villages). Entrants must be brave and skilled enough to provoke opponents flinging wooden spears.
Pasola is a traditional ceremony of the Sumbanese held in the way of uniquely and sympethically traditional norms, every year in February and March and has become the focus of attention of the people since it is a part of the sacred homage to the Marapu.
The ceremony occurs during February in Lamboya and Kodi and during March in WanuKaKa and Gaura. The main activity starts several days after the full-moon and rituals take place before Pasola, mostly the night before Pasola coinciding with the yearly arrival to the shore of strange and multicolored sea worms-nyale. The precise date of the event decided by the Rato during the Wula Podu.
So the event celebrate the arrival of nyale, a goddess believed to be the symbol of divinity and fertility blessing on plants and cattle. Colorful horsemen riding decorated horses give rise to this unique tournament: the dashing horsemen gallop around the area challenging their opponents to spearthrowing contests. Government regulation now require the use of blunt spears but injury and death are accepted as possible consequences of playing the game and there is not any prosecution. The athmosphere in this arena grows increasily excited and cries and screams of the public heighten the feeling of keen competition.

YAWU:
Yawu is ritual ceremony that take place at night to get help from the ancestors.
Women dance around a fire in the middle of graveyard, drums beat, and the mysterious dialogue with ancestors begin :” Tahuli” speaks as advocate for humans, ancestors speak through the voice of “Dodo”, all the dialogue is in a spiritual language(Bahasa adat) .
When somebody is ill, they think ancestors are angry with this person. So they want to know why and they ask to ancestors what to do to calm down the wrath of Marapu – sometimes it works! Also when they want to built a new traditional house, Humans have to ask for agreement to Marapu.

WEDDING
First the men have to “knock at the door”: go to the girl’s village and bring animals to her father. He must comes two times again, giving much buffalos and horses at each time. Finally, he is obliged to offer a huge number of cattle and horses to be allowed to take away the girl. If it is not enough, the girl stay in her family; that’s a great deal and a lot of money (or debts) to get a wife in Sumba!
Men have to bring horses, buffalos, gold and metalwork; bride have to bring pigs, dogs, ivory
and textiles. Weddings are absolutely impossible between some clan which are in bad terms, even in modern times.

BURIAL
Death is the more important event for Sumbanese and the dead men must enter in the afterworld with all he needs.
The body is dressed with several textiles and the wake last some days. During this time relatives have gathered and brought gifts (mostly animals).
The last day relatives have an endless talk to determinate the value of gifts: they are bound to a system of swaps and debts all their life.
Then they slaughter some of animals one of which is a horse that the dead man’s spirit will ride in the afterworld. The body is buried with things needed and symbols of wealth.
At 19th century, slaves were still sacrificed to follow and serve the king in the afterworld.

PACUAN
horse races began in July and final take place in August. Those races are important for
personal prestige and a good way to get money (bets are high).

FESTIVAL
A jamboree of traditional dances, costumes, music and songs occurs every year in
September. You will see Kataga dance (a war dance that men perform with long knives and
shields) and Negu dance performed by women.

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Sumber: sumbaisland.com

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